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Geography & Climate

Lombok island is located east of Bali. Lombok geographically is almost the same size as Bali and, just as there are popular tourist areas on Bali, so Lombok offers a variety of destinations to suit different holidaymakers' tastes. Tropical climate with warm and humid weather all year round. Temperature range from 21 Celsius to 32 Celsius. Wet season starts from November to May and dry season start from May-October. The best time to come is in the month of May when the weather is just perfect with bright daylight and green scenery.

People & Religion

Population is about 2,5 million. The local inhabitants of Lombok are called Sasaks who make up 70% of the population are the predominant group with Balinese, Chinese, Arabian, and Javanese and other ethnics groups making up the rest. Bahasa Indonesia is the National Language, but English is widely spoken.
Lombok has three main districts with three capital cities: Mataram in the west, Praya in central and Selong in east Lombok. The majority of commerce is in the capital city of Mataram in west Lombok.
Islam is the majority religion, but all other religions are practiced freely. Every Friday around 12.30 noon, Muslims go to the mosques just like Christians go to church on Sunday.

Bayan If you are planning on traveling around the island and visiting small villages it is more respectable to wear slacks or knee length shorts, a shirt with sleeves or a sarong. If you happened to be here during Ramadan, which is the Muslim month of fasting from sunrise to sunset, please do not to eat, drink or smoke out in the open public during this month long fast. Even though the people don’t seem bothered in the common tourist areas like, Senggigi and the Gili islands, it is better to respect the people and not eat or smoke openly.

Wetu Telu

Wetu telu is an unique religion that that blends Islam - Animism and is only found in north Lombok. It roots stem from the village of Bayan in the north. The people who practice this still consider themselves Muslims but they have their own rituals in addition to the normal Muslim ones. One such ceremony is Nyiu, that takes place 1000 days after someone dies. The relatives of the deceased offer material things like clothing, toothbrushes, food, dishes, mattresses, etc. so the deceased will be pleased in heaven.

Money & Local Currencies

When changing money there are many money changers in Lombok. The best rates are usually in Senggigi. Money changers prefer new, clean large bills and will accept smaller denominations at a lower rate. If you have traveler’s checks the rate will be less than bank notes.

Be sure to count your money before you leave money changers. You can also check local banks but the rate is slightly lower than outside. Re-count the money in front of the money changer reception is a must, as usually there's a quick tricky way how they can steal your money. A suggestion when changing money. If you plan on making small purchases be sure to carry small denominations with you because many sellers do not have change. The Rupiah come in denominations of 100,000, 50,000, 10,000, 5,000, 1,000, and 500, 100 in coin.

Lombok Art

Things To Take Back Home

Wanting to take back something from Lombok? Lombok has great woven textiles like songkets and ikats that can be used as a sarong, wall hanging, table cloth and more. The design woven is special to each weaver and it is passed down through the generations before. There is a traditional hand weaving village in Puyung, central Lombok. You can even try on a traditional Sasak costume.

Banyumulek (West Lombok), Penujak (Central Lombok) and Masbagik (East Lombok) are famous villages in Lombok for making pottery. Lombok pottery has gained popularity and is shipped throughout the world. There is a wide range of selections and it can custom made to your liking. We hope to develop the economy of the area by directly meet them with serious buyer from all over the world.

There are many traditional handicrafts you could take back as a souvenir i.e. wooden masks, baskets made out of ketak grass, wooden boxes designed with bits of shells, or other things made from bamboo or rattan.
Pink Beach or Tangsi Beach got the name from the color of the beach sand. The sand has pink color, making it distinguish than any other beaches. Most beaches usually have white or black color sand. Tangsi is one of the most interesting tourist destinations in Lombok.

Pink beach

Apart from its pink color sand, the beach has attractive panorama that make everyone want to stay longer in the beach when they visit it. The beach is actually beautiful, however, the location is too remote and the infrastructure is inadequate. The government should pay attention for the development of the beach. Developing infrastructure will attract more tourists to visit the beach. Then, the regional revenue will increase.

Pink beach


Pink Beach is situated in Jerowaru District, East Lombok Regency, Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara. You will need about two and a half an hours driving from Mataram. As previously mentioned, the infrastructure around the beach is inadequate. It is quite difficult for a car to reach the beach. Many part of the roads are damaged. However, once you have arrived at the beach, you’ll be amazed by the beauty of the beach. Especially, the pink color makes the beach look stunning. The pink color of the beach was said to derive from the fractions of coral reefs, named Homtrema rubrum, which mixed with white sand of the beach.


When you come to Pink Beach, you can do many activities, especially water activities. Water activities in the beach are fun and exciting, like snorkeling, fishing, diving or surfing. Snorkeling will allow you to learn more about the underwater life of the beach. You must bring your own equipment if you want to do this activity. No rental activity is found in the beach. You can also swim in the edge of the beach. The clear and clean water is safe for you to swim at any time. Another challenging activity you can do in the beach is water sports, like sea kayak. Sea kayak will be fun, and you will have a challenging experience when you choose this activity.


When you come to Pink Beach, you will not find complete facilities. There are only few fishermen offering their boat to cross the beach into the small island near the beach. However, you can find some people offer you various drinks. But what about hotels or lodges? You will not find any near the beach. The best way when you visit the beach is to come as early as possible, and then go back to town in the afternoon. You better find a hotel or a lodge in Mataram. Mataram provides a wide range of hotel, from budget to splurge rate. Depending on your budget, select a hotel with affordable rate for you.

Visiting Tangsi is recommended for you who love adventure. The nature and the beach offer you incredible views. You can snap interesting objects around the beach. That is why, don’t forget to brink a camera when you visit Tangsi Beach.
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Getting around Lombok is easy by car or motorbike and you can hire these in all the main tourism areas, with an international Driver License. The roads are generally in good condition and traffic is light. Alternatively, hire a car and driver for exploring or take part in the tours and day trips offered by the many tour agencies on the island.


The whole island is surrounded by fantastic beaches, most of which are covered in clean white sand and fringed by coconut palms. Nipah and enjoy deserted beaches with fine snorkelling and swimming. The southwest coast also has fine beaches, especially around Sekotong and Taun.

Lombok Beach

Visit the small island of Gili Nanggu for rustic accommodation and great snorkelling just off shore or stay at Secret Island Resort on Gili Gede to explore the twelve other undeveloped islands in the southwest. The beaches around Kuta are breathtakingly beautiful. Visit Gerupuk for fantastic scenary, Kuta for long stretches of white sand and turquoise waters, or swim in the peaceful lagoon at Mawun.


With so many beaches and small islands, Lombok offers a myriad of diving and snorkelling opportunities. The best known locations are around the Gili islands (Gili Air, Gili Meno, and Gili Trawangan).


Snorkelling is easy from the shore and all three islands are well served by professional dive operators who offer full PADI certification courses, day and night dives to the many sites around the Gilis, as well as specialised courses and live-aboard adventures to exotic locations. For the more adventurous, there is superb diving around the islands off the southwest coast, as well as near Kuta on south coast and the small uninhabited islands of the east coast.


Lombok is becoming a world-renown surfing destination amongst surf enthusiasts world-wide. Huge waves and challenging surf lure die-hards to Bangko-Bangko (also known as Desert Point) on the south-western tip of Lombok.


Kuta, on the south coast, is surf-central and has a range of accommodations and services catering specially to surfers.

Here you can hire a board, get board repairs and take surf lessons from the professionls.

The waves at Gerupuk and Kuta offer a variety of challenges from beginners to sheer madness!

Ekas Bay has two surf breaks: Inside Ekas and Outside Ekas, which are suitable for beginners to experts, depending on different peaks and tides.


Much of the island is still covered by natural rain forest and jungles, making Lombok ideal for ecotourism and adventure tours.

There are a number of spectacular waterfalls on the island which provide lovely trekking opportunities, wheether travelling independently or as part of a tour. Sendang Gile and Tiu Kelep on the slope of Mount Rinjani in the north is an easily accessible waterfalls in a stunning jungle setting and popular with visitors.


Air Jeruk Manis, near Tetebatu is reached by walking through pretty rice fields and forests.

the awesome Benang Stokel and Benang Kelambu waterfalls, in central Lombok, are located within a short trek of each other and make a perfect day trip for those who appreciate truly magical natural surroundings.

Mountain Climbing

Mt. Rinjani, Lombok's famous volcano, soars 3726m above sea level and is the second highest volcano in Indonesia, attracting thousands of trekkers and climbers annually. The huge crater near the top contains a beautiful lake, Danau Segara Anak (Child of the Sea Lake) and a smaller volcanic cone, Gunung Baru Jari, which was formed a couple of hundred years ago. There are a number of caves, small waterfalls and hot springs located around the volcano.

Rinjani Trekking

In 2004 Rinjani won the World Legacy Award and the volcano is recognised internationally as an important eco-tourism destination. Two, three and four day treks on the volcano are offered by tour companies and trek organizers in all the main resort areas of Lombok.

Historic Sites and Temples

There are a number of interesting temples around the west coast, many of which are Hindu or ancient animist sites of worship.

Pura Lingsar is possibly the only place in the world where Hindus and Moslems come together to pray and celebrate. Built around 1714, Pura Lingsar was originally based on the prevailing animist beliefs of the time, and some of the original animist statues remain today. Perang Topat, is an annual festival held at Lingsar and features a ritualised war with rice cakes, which also serve as an offering to the Gods.

Temple Sudamalas

Pura Narmada (or Narmada Temple), around 10km east of Cakranegara in Narmada, was created circa 1805 as a replica of Gunung Rinjani and Segara Anak, the lake within Rinjani's crater. The gardens at Narmada are beautifully maintained and surround the pools and lake.


Pura Suranadi, a complex of three temples located a few kilometres north of Narmada in Suranadi, is the oldest and holiest of the Balinese temples in Lombok, founded by the 16th-century Javanese priest, Danghyang Nirartha. Underground streams bubble up into restored baths, used for ritual bathing. Huge sacred eels live in the pools and streams here, and can sometimes be lured out with an offering of boiled eggs (purchased at nearby stall). To see a sacred eel is considered very lucky!

Handicraft Villages

Lombok is famous for its traditional earthenware pottery made from local clay with distinctive "Lombok Primitive" designs. You can also purchase hand-woven sarongs and fabrics (ikat). Pringgasela in central Lombok is a small Village which is steeped in tradition and is a major centre for weaving ikat. Visit the small houses and shops here to purchase traditionally woven, colourful fabrics.

Pringgasela in central Lombok is small village which is steeped in tradition and is a major centre for weaving ikat. Visit the small houses and shops here to purchase traditionally woven, colourful fabrics.


Masbagik, close to Pringgasela, is a small pottery Village. Wander the streets and see the pottery being made in the small yards behind the simple homes here and purchase the wares for amazingly cheap prices.

Sukarara is 5 km to the west of Praya, heading south towards Kuta. This is a weaving village where quality ikat and traditional cloth is displayed and sold. Weavers work outside many of the shops, using antiquated "back strap looms"


to painstakingly produce works of art. Some of the larger pieces can take several months to weave, and collectors from around the world visit this village to purchase the blankets, sarongs and cloth produced here.

Banyumulek, easily reached on the road south to Lembar Harbour, is an important centre for pottery on Lombok. The small Village is packed with shops selling pottery produced in the area, as well as from the other main pottery-making Villages such as Penujak and Masbagik. Lombok pottery, with its distinctive terracotta styles, has become famous internationally and is exported throughout the world.
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Gili Trawangan

The most well-known and popular of the three Gilis, Gili Trawangan is the largest island and the furthest from the mainland, but easily reached in less than an hour by local boat and only 10 minutes by speedboat from Lombok.

Previously tagged "the party island" by The Lonely Planet, Gili T (as it is affectionately known) has moved on and up.

Gone are the days when backpackers flocked to the island for IDR 20,000 a night huts on the beach and IDR 5,000 Bintang beers. Today, Gili T has a sleek sophisticated side that becomes more evident every year.

That's not to say that the original charms that attracted travellers in the beginning are gone. The perfect white sand beaches, clear turquoise waters and laid-back island style are still what attracts visitors today.

But the island has cast off its grungy origins and now combines the best of a tropical island paradise with a touch of chie and all the mod cons of a top holiday destination.

Gili T still hosts backpackers and budget travellers, but these days they are joined by expatriates and trendsetters from Java and Bali, together with singles, couples and families from all over the world.

Gili Trawangan

The island itself is around 3km long and 2km wide, so walking is easy and you can cycle around the island in around 1 1/2 hours (but will need to get off and push your bike through sandy sections on the west side).

This is the only Gili to rise significantly above sea level and the hill in the south is a great lookout from which to enjoy the spectacular sunsets acoss the ocean to Bali; or in the mornings, the brilliant sunrise over Gunung Rinjani on the mainland Lombok.

On the far south end of the hill are the remnants of old WWII Japanese gun emplacements and crumbling bunkers, but the hand-dug tunnels have been blocked up.

The main development on the island is on the east coast, particularly southeast in the area called "Sentral", where the boats dock. Tracks meander from the main coastal "road" inland through coconut groves to pockets of secluded development.

Development runs all along the east coast with swish places rubbing shoulders with the older bars and accommodations. The north coast is quieter and offers peaceful alternatives to the central area.

Such is the appeal of the island, the south and west coasts are now dotted with small hotels, homestays, private villas and a couple of larger resorts. This part of the island is the quietest and, although the beaches aren't as nice as those on the east, the sunsets looking across to Bali are magical.

Gili Trawangan

Accommodation on Gili T ranges from basic homestays to luxury hotels and villas. The old style bungalows with woven bamboo walls and thatched roofs are slowly disappearing, to be replaced by simple cottages with western style bathrooms to suit the budget crowd.

At the other and of the scale, boutique hotels and luxurious villas boast all the comforts of 5 star resorts, including designer furnishings, private swimming pool or Jacuzzis, WiFi internet, iPod docks, satellite TV and DVD.

Restaurants rival Bali in quality, if not numbers. there are lounges and sophisticated bars, Internet cafes, movie "theatres" and beachside cafes galore. Most restaurants and bars are located along the east coast, although the north coast has some lovely low-key options. Dining choices range from the typical Indonesian Nasi Goreng to sushi; barbecued seafood on the beach to international fine dining; and everything between.

There is a lively bar scene at night and the island has a rotating party roster, where some of the top places have licences to host a party on one night of the week (hence the "party island" reputation). These, and the full moon parties that take place on the beach during high season, are a big draw-card for the crowds of younger people who come to the island.

For those who prefer quieter entertainment, there are sophisticated dining opportunities, particularly at places such as ko-ko-mo Resort, Scallywags Resort, and on the beachfront at Hotel Villa Ombak, as well as the stylish Pearl Beach Lounge next door.

These days, Gili T is a serious tourist destination with a good infrastructure and renge of tourist facilities.

Many of the larger restaurant, hotels and dive shops accept credit cards; there are ATM's in front of Gili T Resort (near Sentral), in front of Villa Ombak on the east coast and further north., near Blue Beach, as well as on the west side at Ombak Sunset.

Internet cafes with WiFi are readily available, as are money-changers, tour operators and a large number of fast boat services.

There is a tennis club and fitness centre at Kelapa Villas and a medical centre at Villa Ombak with basic emergency facilities and a doctor on call.

Horses can be hire from The Stud on the southeast coast; sea kayaking is available at Karma Kayak on the north coast; yoga, meditation, massages and other health and beauty treatments are available at numerous places around the island.

There is even shopping at the Pasar Seni (Art Markets) in Sentral and at any number of shops and kiosks all around the island, selling everything from pearls to sarongs to hammocks. Innuendo has some upmarket resort wear and Silver Dragon sells beautiful silver jewellery.

But it is the beaches and the diving that remain the main draw card for Gili T. People flock here to sunbathe on white sand beaches and swim in clean blue waters, to dive the fabulous reefs and to bask in the hedonistic pleasures of a tropical paradise.

There is a good surf break on the south coast with a fast right-hander that really pumps in the right conditions. Local surfers will happily lead the way and rent you a board.

The best snorkelling on the island starts on the northern end of the east coast, where you can wade to the reef just offshore. The water is calm and there is a drift from north to south, making it easy to lie on the surface and float down the coral outcrops. Although much of the coral is damaged, there is still an abundant variety of tropical fish species to enjoy and patches of colourful coral.

Further of shore, the island is famed for its vast gardens of coral and is one of the best dive spots in Lombok, which is why thousands of divers visit Gili T every year.

It is also one of the safest and easiest places to learn to scuba dive, with warm water temperatures, calm seas and excellent visibility almost all year round. There is a very good selection of professional western operated dive shop and a range of dive locations suitable for beginners through to thrill seekers.

It's been a slow evolution over the past 20 years for Gili Trawangan, but the island's time has come. While the backpackers will no doubt lament, there's a whole new scene unfolding on Gili T.

A world class tourism destination is emerging - without the traffic and pollution - set down on an idyllic tropical island.
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6Cunca Rami (Flores)

The impressive Cunca Rami waterfall, with its many pretty pools that offer a refreshing, natural swimming experience, makes a fantastic day trip from Labuan Bajo. With 300 meters high waterfall hanging from top of rock wall, making its an amazing destination in Flores.

5 Grojogan Sewu (Java)

Grojogan Sewu means a thousand waterfalls. Although the waterfall here do not amount to a thousand, but there is some point of waterfalls that can be enjoyed here. The highest waterfall there are about 80 meters high.

4 Bantimurung (Sulawesi)

It is located at the valley of the steep limestone hills. The surrounding is filled with fertile tropical vegetation which has become home to thousands of beautiful butterflies. As the name Bantimurung means a place for getting rid of sadness, this place is an ideal for family picnic and a pleasant place for roaming, swimming, and relaxing.

3 Gitgit (Bali)

It is one of the famous waterfalls in Bali which located in the north part of Bali. Even though it is only 35 meters in height, but it is a beautiful object which located in plateau area and surrounded by tropical tree. The rain forest around emits the constanly natural water debit during the year.

2 Sigura Gura (Sumatra)

These 250 meters in height waterfall is the tallest in Indonesia. The water produces by the Asahan River. It is one of the cornerstones of community life in North Sumatra, because the flow of this waterfall is used for main propulsions generator.

1 Sendang Gile (Lombok)

To reach and enjoy the waterfall, we have to walk down a graded trail and steps from Senaru Village. it is about 100 meters in height and divided into three layers. First layer known as Sendang Gile, and the second is Tiu Kelep and the top is Batara Lajang. In addtion, there is a uniqueness that distinguishes this waterfall with others. There is also a trust if a shower or washes her face at this waterfall will make someone a year younger than actual age.
Gili Islands

The Gilis are easily reached from Bali via the numerous fast boat services now operating between Bali and Gili Trawangan. Alternatively, you can fly to Lombok and travel across to Gilis.

Getting Gilis From Bali

Fast Boats: With Lombok's airport now based further away in central Lombok, the fast boat services are a popular option, providing fast and easy transfer between Bali to Gili Trawangan. The crossing between the islands can be treacherous in bad weather, so choose a reliable operator and avoid companies that practice "over loading" in busy times.

Blue Weather Express provides transfers between Bali and Gili Trawangan, and Lombok mainland. Blue Weather Express operates two boats, with 30 and 50 passenger capacities, departing from Serangan (near Benoa Harbour) at 08:00am and 10:00am, and from Padang Bai Harbour at 11:15am everyday.
Contact info: Ph: +6236 1895 1111 / +62813 3841 8988.

Gili Getaway is a comportable fast boat departing from Benoa Harbour, Bali (only 20 mins from Kuta) daily at 08:00am. The crossing takes around 2 hours to Gili Trawangan and Teluk Kodek on Lombok.
Contact info: Bali Ph: (0361) 751570 / 726 523; Ph Gili T: +6287864322515.

Marina Srikandi operates direct fast boat services several times a day between Padang Bai Harbour (in Bali) and the Gilis, as well as a direct service to Senggigi.
Contact info: Ph: +623 7069 3383, Bali Ph: +623 6172 9818.

By Helcopter: Air Bali offers a regular helicopter transfer service between Bali and Gili Trawangan. Private charters are also possible (subject to availability).
Contact info: Ph: +623 6176 7466.

Getting Gilis From Lombok

From Teluk Nara and Teluk Kodek Harbour: Teluk Nara is a large peaceful bay on the west coast, about 25 minutes drive north of Senggigi. Most of dive companies and many businesses on the Gilis have their boats moored in the bay and transfer guests to the islands everyday from Teluk Nara. It is possible to negotiate private boat trips (including speed boat transfers) out to the islands with local boat owners here, thereby avoiding the hassles of bangsal.

Teluk Nare
Teluk Nare
Teluk Kodek
Teluk Kodek

At the northern end of the bay is Teluk Kodek, where Villa Ombak, The Beach House, Kokomo and Scallywags have bases for transferring their guests by Speed Boat to the Gilis.

From Bangsal Harbour: Catch a Taxi or Bemo (or other public transportations) to Bangsal Harbour, the small harbour on the north-west coast, about 30 minutes from Senggigi.

Bangsal Harbour
Bangsal Harbour

Public ferries (really just large outrigger boats) depart regularly to all three islands and charters are available, with prices depending on the number of passengers and your bargaining skills.

Unfortunately, the area is plagued by touts and scams, so ignore them and head directly to the ticket office on the beachfront. Public ferry and charter boat prices are posted clearly on the wall of the ticket office.

Be aware that public boats leave when there are enough passengers to warrant the trip, so you may have to wait for a while. Best time are between 08:00am and 04:00pm. If you don't want to wait, it doesn't cost very much to charter a boat, especially if you have a few people in your group.

Don't let anyone carry your bags or, if they offer to carry baggage, negotiate a price first.

Ignore people who tell you that there are no return public transfers... there are; or that there is no water, mosquito repellent, etc., on the islands. All the essentials are readily available at shops on all three islands. Bangsal is a pretty; it's a shame some of the touts try to ruin it for everyone.

If you get stuck at the harbour in the evening, there are some basic home-stays on the road from the beach.

There are several home-stays with pretty rooms at reasonable prices as well as the restaurant serves delicious meals and the friendly owners can help with everything from vehicle hire to travel information and laundry services.

From Senggigi: You can charter local outrigger boats from the beachfront in Senggigi (in front of the Art Markets). The trip out to the islands takes around one and a half hours.


The journey up the coast in the morning is very scenic, but you may get wet on the way back. Make sure you negotiate a price with the boatman first.

A good alternative is to check out the many dive centres on the main street in Senggigi who offer reasonable rates for transfers, usually including pick up from your hotel.

Arranging snorkelling and dive trips inclusive of island transfers is a good way to save time, money and hassles.

Source: HaLoMi Trekker
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Wow!! Letusan Gunung Rinjani (Gunung Samalas), Ternyata Lebih Besar Dari Krakatau Bahkan Tambora!

Selama ini letusan dan erupsi gunung Krakatau dan gunung Tambora dianggap paling dahsyat di Indonesia, ternyata ada satu gunung lagi yang mengalahkan keduanya.

Peneliti telah mengamati jejak abu dan beberapa serpihan kimia dari sebuah gunung api yang pernah meletus dengan dahsyat dari jejaknya pada lapisan es, baik yang berada di Kutub Utara maupun di Kutub Selatan.

Namun sejauh ini masih menuai misteri, karena belum ditemukan gunung api yang meletus dan bertanggung jawab atas jejak-jejak abu di lapisan es tersebut.

Para ilmuwan mengatakan, temuan yang dipublikasikan dalam Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, itu adalah bahwa letusan gunung berapi tersebut adalah yang terbesar dalam 7.000 tahun terakhir, namun asal-usulnya telah membingungkan glaciologists, vulkanologi, dan ahli iklim selama beberapa dekade.

Yang sejauh ini peneliti ketahui, pada masa lalu sekitar tanggal 05 April 1815, gunung Tambora meletus dan mengakibatkan ribuan orang meninggal dunia. Bahkan letusannya juga melahirkan gelombang tsunami besar di kala itu.

Setelah Tambora, 68 tahun kemudian yaitu pada tanggal 27 Agustus 1883, gunung Krakatau meletus dengan hebat. Bahkan awan abunya sempat menutupi hampir seperempat bagian dari bumi.

Selain keduanya, menurut para peneliti, ternyata sekitar tahun 1257 ada gunung berapi lain di Indonesia yang juga meletus dengan dahsyat, yaitu gunung Samalas.

Karena letusan gunung Samalas tersebut, selain membuat banyak orang yang meninggal, suhu kala itu turun drastis dan banyak petani dari seluruh dunia yang mengalami gagal panen.

Kini struktur gunung itu telah berubah semenjak terjadi letusan pada masa lalu itu, dan diperkirakan letusan gunung satu ini lebih dahsyat dibandingkan dengan gunung Krakatau bahkan gunung Tambora!

Gunung rinjani
Observasi lapangan pada lapisan piroklastik dari Letusan Gunung Samalas menunjukkan ketebalan maksimum yang diukur melebihi 1 m, dan kumulatif deposito jatuh mencapai hingga 1.60m

Peneliti Mencari “Pelaku” berdasarkan Catatan Letusan “Yang Gelapkan Dunia”

Sebuah ledakan misterius terjadi pada 1257, di abad ke-13. Saking dahsyatnya, jejak kimiawinya terekam dalam es di Arktik dan Antartika.

Teks dari Abad Pertengahan menceritakan tentang iklim yang secara mendadak mendingin dan panen yang gagal. Membuat warga susah, bahkan diduga banyak yang tewas.

Dan baru kini para ilmuwan menemukan gunung berapi yang bertanggung jawab atas peristiwa tersebut.

Dalam jurnal sains, PNAS, tim internasional menunjuk pada Gunung Samalas di Pulau Lombok, Indonesia yang ini dikenal sebagai Gunung Rinjani. Hanya sedikit struktur gunung api yang tersisa dan kini tampilannya hanya berupa danau kawah Segara Anak.

Danau Segara Anak
Danau Segara Anak dari Plawangan Senaru

Gunung yang bernama Samalas yang kini “hampir tak tersisa dan hanya tinggal sisa letusannya” – sekarang lebih dikenal bernama Gunung Rinjani di Pulau Lombok, dituding sebagai penyebab perubahan iklim mendadak di abad pertengahan untuk wilayah Eropa dan sekitarnya.

Nah, ternyata inilah gunung yang dianggap bertanggung jawab telah menorehkan jejak-jejak abu vulkaniknya di lapisan es di kedua kutub Bumi.

Tim ilmuwan mengaitkan jejak sulfur dan debu di es di kutub dengan data yang ditemukan di wilayah Lombok, termasuk unsur radiokarbon, tipe dan penyebaran batu dan abu, cincin pepohonan, dan bahkan sejarah lokal yang menyebut tentang runtuhnya Kerajaan Lombok di suatu masa Abad ke-13.

“Buktinya sangat kuat dan menarik,” kata Profesor Clive Oppenheimer dari Cambridge University, Inggris, seperti dimuat BBC, 30 September 2013.

Profesor Clive Oppenheimer dari Cambridge University, Inggris.
Profesor Clive Oppenheimer dari Cambridge University, Inggris.

Koleganya sesama ilmuwan, Profesor Franck Lavigne dari Pantheon-Sorbonne University, Prancis menambahkan, “Kami melakukan sesuatu yang mirip investigasi kriminal.”

“Awalnya kami tak tahu siapa tersangkanya, hanya berbekal hari ‘pembunuhan’ dan jejaknya dalam bentuk geokimia di inti es. Itu memungkinkan kami melacak gunung yang bertanggung jawab.”

Sebelumnya, para peneliti lain mengatakan bahwa terjadi perubahan iklim mendadak dikarenakan letusan gunung api Okataina di Selandia Baru dan El Chichon di Meksiko, namun bukti lain menyebutkan bahwa Samalas yang menjadi kandidat kuat sebagai ‘pelakunya.’

“Buktinya sangat kuat dan menarik,” kata Clive, seperti dikutip BBC (01/10/2013). Selain menjadi ‘pelaku’ berubahnya iklim secara mendadak di sebagian wilayah di planet ini, letusan dan erupsi Samalas juga dikait-kaitkan dengan sejarah lokal yaitu jatuhnya Kerajaan Lombok sekitar abad 13.

Bukti lain, seperti yang dituliskan di National Geographic (01/10/13), adalah terdapatnya teks dalam bahasa Jawa, Babad Lombok, yang menceritakan sebuah erupsi besar dari gunung api raksasa bernama Samalas yang akhirnya menciptakan sebuah kaldera atau kawah.

Ledakan 1257 tersebut sebelumnya dikira terkait sejumlah gunung di Meksiko, Ekuador, dan Selandia Baru. Namun, berdasarkan penelitian, sejumlah kandidat tersebut gagal memenuhi prasyarat karbon dating dan geokimia. Hanya Samalas yang cocok.

letusan gunung
Letusan-letusan gunung api besar di dunia (wikipedia).

Peristiwa Global

Tim yang langsung turun ke Lombok mengindikasikan setidaknya 40 kilometer kubik batuan dan debu terlontar dari gunung yang mengamuk. Dengan ketinggian lebih dari 40 kilometer ke langit.

Ledakan tersebut pastilah luar biasa, hingga bisa mengirim material itu ke seluruh dunia, dalam jumlah yang signifikan untuk dilacak sampai ke Greenland dan lapisan es Antartika. Dan, akibatnya pada iklim juga luar biasa.

perbandingan letusan gunung dunis
Perbandingan letusan besar gunung terkenal di dunia dengan Samalas

Teks-teks Abad Pertengahan mendeskripsikan cuaca yang mengerikan di musim panas tahun berikutnya, pada 1928: dingin, hujan yang tak kunjung berhenti, hingga memicu banjir.

Para arkeolog baru-baru ini juga menentukan perkiraan tahun kematian pada 1258 pada ribuan orang yang dimakamkan di kuburan massal di London.

“Kami belum bisa memastikan dua kejadian tersebut — meletusnya Samalas dengan kematian massal di London. Namun, warga di masa itu pasti sangat tertekan.”

Jika dibandingkan, kekuatan ledakan Samalas setidaknya sama besar dengan Krakatau (1883) dan Tambora (1815).

Inti es juga menyimpan jejak peristiwa kolosal pada 1809 yang masih jadi misteri. Seperti halnya jalan panjang menemukan Samalas, proses untuk mengetahui asal muasal peristiwa 1809 akan sulit.

“Luar biasa bahwa kita belum menemukan bukti dari peristiwa itu. Namun, tak ada tempat di dunia yang bisa mengubur kabar buruk seperti itu.”

Jadi apabila penelitian ini benar, maka ada 4 gunung api dengan letusan dan erupsi maha dahsyat di Indonesia, yaitu Gunung Toba, Gunung Tambora, Gunung Krakatau dan kini, gunung Samalas. (BBC/ Ein/Yus/ liputan6/ National Geographic)

Rinjani Samalas eruption
Peta ini menunjukkan distribusi arus kepadatan piroklastik (pDCs) dari letusan Samalas dan lokasi sampel arang yang digunakan untuk penanggalan radiokarbon. Ledakan besar yang terjadi hampir 800 tahun yang lalu, mungkin telah membuat kota Pompeii terkubur, menurut para peneliti. (Distribution of PDCs from the Samalas eruption and location of charcoal samples used for radiocarbon dating) (

Sumber letusan juga telah dipersempit ke gunung berapi Samalas di Pulau Lombok di Indonesia . Hari ini , semua yang tersisa adalah sebuah danau kawah besar. (Samalas caldera and Segara Anak. (A) Photograph of the present caldera viewed from the east (photo: Zulz, “Gunung Baru” June 26, 2006 via Flickr, Creative Commons License). (B) Present (shaded tones surface) and preexplosion reconstructed topography (black grid). We assume that a caldera was absent before the mid-13th century eruption, because no other large Plinian eruption has been identified) (

Rinjani Samalas
Peta ini menunjukkan adanya batu apung yang besar dan sangat ringan dan berpori-batu vulkanik hingga 50 mm pada 46-km jarak tenggara dari ventilasi di Sumbawa. Para ilmuwan mengklaim ini menunjukkan besarnya besar letusan Samalas. (Isopach maps for Samalas plinian and phreatoplinian fall deposits. (A) Samalas F1 compared with the F4 Plinian fall unit of Tambora A.D. 1815 (20, 21). (B) Samalas F2 Phreatoplinian fall unit. (C) Samalas F3 Plinian fall unit. Isopachs were mapped for the F1, F2, and F3, from 44, 22, and 18 thickness measurements in the field, respectively. Interpolation of the data using a multiquadratic radial model was the first step in constructing the final isopach maps. Although much less widespread than the F1 unit, the distributions of the F2 and F3 units are both broader than the main Plinian fall unit of Tambora 1815) (

radiocarbon and calibra
Radiocarbon and calibrated ages of the charcoal samples from the Samalas pyroclastic density current deposits using OxCal 4.2.2 and IntCal 09 (32, 33). Although some ages are older, none is younger than A.D. 1257 (at 95% confidence level). Based on this model, the Samalas eruption cannot be correlated with ice-core sulfate anomalies at A.D. 1275 and A.D. 1284 (2), which are clearly too young for our A.D. 1257 age model. This interpretation is consistent with written sources as discussed in the text (

geochemistry of matrix
Geochemistry of matrix glass [total alkalis vs. silica (TAS) diagram] sampled in pyroclastic fall deposits of the Samalas eruption, compared with the reported composition (13) of glass shards found in polar ice cores for the mid-13th century mystery eruption (mean ± 1σ). (
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